Liver Cancer News 2019

Blue Faery: The Adrienne Wilson Liver Cancer Association



Liver Cancer News 2019

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New Online Resources Provide Support To The Liver Cancer Community
25 June 2019
Blue Faery: The Adrienne Wilson Liver Cancer Association was founded by Andrea Wilson after the loss of her 15-year-old sister Adrienne to Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Andrea discussed Blue Faery’s new initiatives at the 2019 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting. Blue Faery hosts an online forum, Blue Faery Liver Cancer Community, for patients and caregivers. In an interview, Andrea states, “My first piece of advice is to get a second opinion and, in many cases, a third opinion. No matter how much you love your doctor, always get a second opinion.”

Asia-Pacific Hepatocellular Carcinoma (AHCC) Trials Group Meeting
25 June 2019
The 3rd annual Symposium of the Singapore Liver Cancer Consortium (SLCC) was hosted by the Asia-Pacific Hepatocellular Carcinoma (AHCC) Trials Group. Members of the AHCC Trials Group, other HCC researchers attended. Prof Pierce Chow, Senior Consultant, Division of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) stated, “In pursuance of our aims to bring about better clinical outcomes for patients with HCC, the AHCC Trials Group is constantly exploring collaborations with investigators from both academic research institutes and industry partners.” The AHCC trials group has recently initiated 2 prospective studies on HCC in the Asia-Pacific (AHCC protocols 07 and 08).

Bristol-Myers Squibb's Opdivo Misses Its Shot At Earlier Use In Liver Cancer
24 June 2019
Opdivo, developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, already has an FDA approval in liver cancer patients who have been treated with Bayer’s Nexavar for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). A recent study shows that drug failed to beat Nexavar at extending patients’ lives in a phase 3 study called CheckMate-459. The survival data didn’t meet the statistical significance bar in the trial. The CheckMate-040 trial also shows that the tumor response rate it of 14.3%, isn’t that much different from the 17% Keytruda posted in its phase 2 Keynote-224 study.

Race-Matched Liver Transplants Improve Survival For Black Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma
24 June 2019
Dr. T. Clark Gamblin, chief of surgical oncology at Medical College of Wisconsin, and colleagues utilized the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Organ Procurement and Transplant Network database to obtain records for adults who underwent liver transplantation. This team has a strong interest in primary liver cancer. Liver transplant is one treatment option for patients with early-stage disease. They identified 1,384 black patients, of whom 325 (23.5%) underwent race-matched transplant. Patients who received race-matched transplant achieved a median overall survival (OS) of 135 months vs. 78 months for those with non-race-matched transplants.

Arbutus Receives Regulatory Clearance To Initiate Phase 1a/1b Clinical Trial Of AB-729
20 June 2019
Arbutus Biopharma Corporation has been approved to initiate a Phase 1a/1b clinical trial of AB-729. Arbutus is an industry-leading Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) therapeutic solutions. AB-729 is an RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic targeted to hepatocytes. It has been shown to reduce viral antigens and inhibit HBV proliferation. AB-506 is an oral HBV capsid inhibitor. HBV which also inhibits proliferation. Before receiving approval, Arbutus was required to complete a three- and six-month toxicology study.

Stem Cells Obtained From Menstrual Blood May Epigenetically Inhibit Liver Cancer
18 June 2019
Menstruation is a normal and natural part of human life which signifies a healthy reproductive system and a women’s ability to bear children. However, it has been viewed in a negative light and not always appreciated for its real purpose. Menstrual blood and tissue are valuable resources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In a recent study, researchers tested menstrual derived MSCs (MenSCs) on a certain type of liver cancer to determine if they could inhibit tumor cell growth. The results revealed that these stem cells indeed induced had an anticancer effect. these stem cells are readily available and can be isolated non-invasively from voluntary female donors without invoking ethical concern.

Poor Oral Health May Up Liver Cancer Risk
18 June 2019
A recent study shows that poor oral health is associated with a 75% increased risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Haydee WT Jordao, from the Queen's University Belfast, and lead author of the study, along with his team analyzed over 469,000 people in the UK. They investigated the association between oral health conditions and the risk of several gastrointestinal cancers, including liver, colon, rectum and pancreatic cancer. Participants with poor oral health were more likely to be younger, female, living in deprived socioeconomic areas and consumed less than two portions of fruit and vegetables per day. When the liver is affected by diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis or cancer, its function will decline and bacteria will survive for longer and therefore have the potential to cause more harm, explains Jordao.

Lumping All Hispanic Americans Together Masks The Differences In Cancer Outcomes
17 June 2019
A San Diego State University (SDSU) study is among the first to describe trends in cancer mortality by specific Hispanic groups. There are some significant differences in food habits, cultural mores, and lifestyles among Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Central and South Americans in the U.S. The study came about because a third-generation Mexican-American graduate student researcher at SDSU, Steven Zamora, wanted to understand what his own risks were. His study shows that Mexican American and Puerto Rican American males were dying at twice the rate of non-Hispanic whites from stomach and liver cancers.

NASH Rapidly Overtaking Hepatitis C As Cause Of Liver Cancer
16 June 2019
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is rapidly gaining hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as the leading contributor to liver cancer in the United States. Based on research results, the prevalence of HCV has been in steady decline since 2005. Researchers have forecast a decline to 1.06 million cases by 2025, from the 3.22 million cases in 2005. In terms of effect on the prevalence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), the modeling suggested cases of HCV-related liver cancer were predicted to peak at around 29,000 cases in 2025. A higher proportion of patients with NASH develop cirrhosis. The probability of developing HCC is higher in patients with HCV.

Individual Approach May Help To Determine Second-Line Treatment Options In Liver Cancer
14 June 2019
Until 2018, patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) only had one front-line treatment option: Nexavar(sorafenib). Since Nexavar was approved in 2007, no positive trials were announced until 2017. August 2018, the FDA approved Lenvima (lenvatinib) for the front-line treatment of patients with unresectable HCC based on results from the phase 3 REFLECT trial. The results from the trial showed a median overall survival of 13.6 months in the Lenvima arm compared with 12.3 months in the Nexavar arm. The median progression-free survival was 7.4 months in those who received Lenvima versus 3.7 months in patients treated with Nexavar.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma HCC Treatment Market Pegged For Robust Expansion During 2016-2026
14 June 2019
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is currently expected to be the third leading cause of death worldwide. The increase in incidences of HCC associated with hepatitis C virus are expected to grow. HCV infection is the principal cause of HCC in North America, Europe, and Japan. Inventions in technologies for cancer treatment procedures are expected to launch into the market. HCC treatments include chemotherapy and local ablation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and other immunological treatments are generally known for their lesser side effects and better efficacy.

Sustained Virologic Response In Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C And Liver Cancer
13 June 2019
According to a systematic review and meta-analysis, efforts are needed to aggressively screen, diagnose, and treat Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Patients with chronic hepatitis C and HCC may be less likely to achieve cure status than those without HCC. Questions still remain about the effect of HCC on response to interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. Researchers investigated the effect of DAA therapy on sustained virologic response (SVR) among 3341 patients with chronic hepatitis C and HCC and 35,701 patients with chronic hepatitis C but without HCC from 49 studies conducted in 15 countries. Overall, they found that SVR rates were lower in patients having chronic hepatitis C with HCC compared with patients diagnosed without HCC.

Selective Effect Signal On Liver Cancer Tissue In Phase IA Study With MIV-818
12 June 2019
Data from the first six patients with advanced cancer in the liver treated with increasing MIV-818 doses has been published. MIV-818 is developed by Medivir AB. MIV-818 is a pro-drug designed to selectively treat liver cancers and to minimize side effects. Scientist believe that it has the potential to become the first liver-targeted, orally administered drug to benefit patients with HCC. The phase I/II study of MIV-818 consists of three parts. Based on the positive results from the first six patients, Medivir has decided to initiate the phase IB in which the dose is escalated in cohorts of three patients.

Regular Aspirin Use And Risk Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma And Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
10 June 2019
According to Tracey G. Simon, MD, MPH, of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and colleagues the use of at least two standard-dose aspirin tablets per week was associated with a significant reduction in the risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The study involved data from 133,371 participants. The investigators reported on aspirin use, frequency, dosage, and duration of use. The investigators concluded: “This study suggests that regular, long-term aspirin use is associated with a dose-dependent reduction in [Hepatocellular Carcinoma] risk, which is apparent after 5 or more years of use.”

Bayer And China’s Cstone Pharmaceuticals Team Up On Cancer Program
10 June 2019
CStone Pharmaceuticals and Bayer are working together to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a checkpoint inhibitor with a multi-kinase inhibitor for the treatment of multiple cancers. They will pair CStone’s CS1001 with Bayer’s regorafenib, an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR, FGFR, CSF1R and other receptors. CStone will be the study sponsor and Bayer will provide regorafenib throughout the clinical trial program. Bayer’s Regorafenib, known as Stivarga in the United States is approved in more than 80 countries for the second-line treatment of advanced hepatocellular (HCC).

Just 18% Of People With Hepatitis/HIV Co-Infection And Cirrhosis Are Screened For Liver Cancer As Often As Recommended
10 June 2019
Researchers report that there is a “strikingly low adherence” to clinical guidelines for ultrasound screening for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in western Europe. The risk of HCC is greater for people with cirrhosis and for people with hepatitis/HIV co-infection. Dr Sophie Willems and colleagues collected data from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE). 646 people were included in the analysis. Their aim was to assess compliance with HCC screening guidelines in a large European cohort of HIV-positive people with hepatitis B or C co-infection and cirrhosis.

Pembrolizumab For Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Reduces Mortality Risk In ‘Technically … Negative Study'
10 June 2019
According to findings from the randomized phase 3 KEYNOTE-240 study, patients with previously treated advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) demonstrated reduced risk for death and improved progression free survival (PFS) with the addition of pembrolizumab. Richard S. Finn, MD, assistant professor of medicine in the department of medicine, division of hematology/internal medicine at David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and colleagues evaluated 413 patients. After a median follow-up of 13.8 months, 10.1% of patients continued to receive pembrolizumab and 3% remained on placebo. Compared with placebo, pembrolizumab improved OS and PFS.

Nuts Provoke Liver Cancer
8 June 2019
According to American nutritionists, scientists have identified nuts as another potential cause of liver cancer. Nuts contain aflatoxins: the mycotoxin producing fungi – Aspergillus. Usually this fungus is found in soil, which may affect some food crops. Mycotoxins have long been recognized to be carcinogenic. On the other hand, nuts contain large amounts of vitamin E, which has a beneficial effect on the skin, cardiovascular system and brain. They also contain a lot of phytosterols, which regulate cholesterol levels.

New Liver Cancer Therapy To Be Added To The NHI
7 June 2019
A second-line targeted therapy for end-stage liver cancer has been included in the National Health Insurance (NHI) as stated by the Director-General Lee Po-chang of the National Health Insurance Administration. Specialists suggest that medical practitioners and patients are exposed to undue stress by NHI rules. While the average life expectancy of a person with end-stage cancer is about six months, the use of the first and second-line therapies can extend that by 26 months on average, he said, adding that the administration’s policy is expected to significantly reduce the financial pressure on patients. First and second-line oral medication can inhibit the growth of blood vessels in tumors and tumor cells, delaying progression of the disease and boosting the survival rate for end-stage liver cancer, Lee King-teh, chairperson of the Taiwan Surgical Society of Gastroenterology said.

Sorafenib Plus Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemo Improves OS In HCC With Portal Vein Invasion
7 June 2019
According to a study, sorafenib plus hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) in the first-line setting improved survival in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) compared with sorafenib alone. Dr. MinKe He, MD, Department of Hepatobiliary Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, in China, and colleagues assessed the safety and efficacy of using sorafenib plus HAIC versus sorafenib monotherapy in patients with HCC and portal vein invasion. Patients were enrolled from 5 hospitals across China between and followed-up with for 10 months. The results showed a median overall survival (OS) of 13.37 months in the combination arm versus 7.13 months in the sorafenib-alone arm.

Cstone Initiates Combination Therapy Trial For Advanced Liver Cancer
6 June 2019
CStone Pharmaceuticals received approval to initiate clinical development in China of a combination therapy for patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The multicenter, open-label and multidose phase 1b/2 study will evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of CS1001, an anti-PD-LI monoclonal antibody, with BLU-554, a potent and highly selective inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4). CS1001 was well-tolerated and demonstrated anti-tumor activity in other cancers as well. BLU-554 was well-tolerated and demonstrated encouraging anti-tumor activity in a phase 1 study and was granted orphan drug designation for HCC by the FDA. “We expect the combination of BLU-554 with CS1001 can offer an important additional treatment option for this challenging disease,” said Frank Jiang, MD, PhD, chairman and CEO of CStone.

How Has US LI-RADS Performed In HCC Screening One Year After Implementation?
5 June 2019
John D. Millet, MD, MHS, with Michigan Medicine in Ann Arbor and colleagues studied more than 2,000 patients to evaluate the performance of the ACR Liver Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) for diagnosing Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) on ultrasound. All patients had been assigned US LI-RADS observation categories and visualization scores. Cirrhosis was the most common indication for HCC screening at 51.4%, followed by non-cirrhotic hepatitis B virus (27.1%) and noncirrhotic hepatitis C virus (11.4%). the team concluded that the ACR’s scoring system implemented in 2017 emphasized sensitivity and negative predictive value.

Promising Early Results For BMS’ Investigational HCC Study
4 June 2019
Bristol-Myers Squibb announced the first results from its investigational Opdivo (nivolumab) plus Yervoy (ipilimumab) cohorts of the Phase I/II CheckMate -040 study at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting 2019. The study evaluated the combination in patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. Patients experienced a median overall survival (OS) of 22.8 months with a 30-month OS rate of 44%. “We are encouraged by these early results which demonstrate a benefit/risk profile for the efficacy observed with the nivolumab plus ipilimumab combination in this cohort of CheckMate -040 that warrants further investigation,” said Faisal Mehmud, executive medical director, Bristol-Myers Squibb, UK and Ireland.

Blood Transfusion During Liver Cancer Surgery Linked With Higher Risk Of Cancer Recurrence And Death
2 June 2019
According to new research being presented at this year's Euroanaesthesia congress held in Austria, receiving a blood transfusion during curative surgery Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is associated with a much higher risk of cancer recurrence and premature death. Findings showed that transfusion of 1 to 4 units of blood increased the risk of cancer recurrence by 23% and death by 55%. “The reason why blood transfusions substantially worsen cancer prognosis remains unclear, but it is likely to be related to the suppressive effects on the immune system” said Dr Ying-Hsuan Tai from Taipei Medical University Shuang Ho Hospital in Taiwan who led the research.

Different Types Of Medication That Could Cause Liver Cancer
1 June 2019
Over the counter (OTC) pain relievers come with numerous side effects. They are interfering with the liver's primary role in the body. The drugs are said to cause toxic liver disease which in dire cases, causes death. Prescription drugs have been linked to various liver diseases. They stress the liver by subjecting it to overwork when purging toxins. Chemotherapy treatment can also cause more harm than the good to the liver.

Radio-Wave Therapy Proves Effective Against Liver Cancer Cells By Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center
31 May 2019
According to a study conducted by scientists at Wake Forest School of Medicine, a targeted therapy using non-thermal radio waves has been shown to block the growth of liver cancer cells anywhere in the body without damaging healthy cells. The research team, led by Boris Pasche, M.D., Ph.D., chair of cancer biology and director of the Comprehensive Cancer Center, delivered levels of radio frequencies to mice that had been injected with human cancer cells to replicate Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). This technology is already approved for use on humans in Europe, invented by Pasche and Alexandre Barbault, of TheraBionic GmbH in Ettlingen, Germany.

Radio-Wave Therapy Proves Effective Against Liver Cancer Cells
31 May 2019
A recent study shows that a new targeted therapy using non-thermal radio waves can block the growth of liver cancer cells anywhere in the body without damaging healthy cells. The study was conducted by scientists at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Health. Using animal models, the research team headed by Boris Pasche, M.D., Ph.D., chair of cancer biology and director of the Comprehensive Cancer Center at Wake Forest Baptist, delivered levels of radio frequencies to mice that had been injected with human cancer cells to replicate Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The AM RF EMF activated a calcium channel on the surface of HCC tumor cells but not on noncancerous cells, explained Pasche who invented the device in collaboration with Alexandre Barbault, of TheraBionic GmbH in Ettlingen, Germany.

Discovery May Mead To Natural Ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid For NK-Based Tumor Immunotherapy
30 May 2019
Natural killer (NK) cells play a significant role in the control of transformed cells at the tumor initiation stage through direct cytolysis, or cell disruption. NK cell-based immunotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy. Research groups led by Prof. LI Yan and Prof. Puno Pematenzin from the Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that ent-kaurane diterpenoids, which show antitumor activity, are good candidates as sensitizer agents for NK cells. The results show that the natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid parvifoline AA (PAA) stimulates the expression of NKG2D ligands on Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) cells, considerably enhancing their recognition and disintegration by NK cells.

Sorafenib Plus Chemo Combo Shows Benefit In Advanced HCC, But Phase III Trial Not Warranted
24 May 2019
A recent study showed that the combination of sorafenib plus gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX), was more beneficial compared with sorafenib monotherapy in patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, the study authors, led by Eric Assenat, MD, PhD, of the Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France, determined a phase III trial was not warranted. 94 patients were randomized in their initial trial. The secondary objectives of this trial, conducted at 10 centers in France, included evaluating the safety of the experimental regimen.

Studying The Function Of Liver Cancer Genes In Mini-Organs
23 May 2019
Researchers from the Hubrecht Institute and Radboud University have developed a human model in which they use organoids, or mini organs, to study the function of specific genes that are mutated in liver cancer. Organoids are mini organs that can be grown in the lab from a very small piece of tissue derived from a variety of organs. They found that mutations in BAP1, a gene commonly mutated in liver cancer, changes the behavior of the cells, which may make them more likely to be invasive. Studying the mutations in tumor formation is especially important in liver cancer.

The Medical City Offers Treatment Options For All Stages Of Liver Cancer
23 May 2019
Microwave Ablation (MWA) is a technology that destroys tumors using heat generated by microwave energy. MWA uses electromagnetic waves. This is the most widely recognized in the treatment of hepatic and renal malignancies. It is like radio frequency ablation (RFA). MWA produces higher temperatures than RFA, which allows for a more complete thermal ablation in a shorter period. Image-guided tumor ablation is a treatment that can fight a wide range of tumors throughout the body. MWA was introduced by The Medical City in 2017.

Expert Breaks Down Latest Advances With Locoregional Therapies In HCC
21 May 2019
With the help of technological advances in interventional radiology, patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) have been able to receive more accurate treatment delivery, which has led to stronger responses, said Emil Cohen, MD, an assistant professor at Medstar Georgetown University Hospital. The current standard care is transarterial chemoembolization. If the tumor is small enough, doctors recommend percutaneous ablation. For patients that are not eligible for transplant, radioembolization, external beam radiation, aggressive resection, or a combination of these are offered. In the past 5 years, microwave ablation has become more popular, since it is not as susceptible to some of the limitations that are often experienced with radiofrequency ablation.

Dr. Musher On Investigational Combination Therapies In HCC
15 May 2019
The ongoing phase III IMbrave150 trial, which combines the VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab (Avastin) with the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab (Tecentriq) is showing promise according to Benjamin Leon Musher, MD, associate professor of medicine, hematology and oncology, at Baylor College of Medicine. If the study does well there will be several frontline options to choose from. Strategies with immunotherapy, including CAR T-cell therapy, are also under investigation. The advantage with immunotherapy is that if patients achieve a response, the responses are durable, adds Musher. This, alongside biomarkers, will help guide treatment decisions one way or another.

Lilly's Cyramza Gets FDA Nod For Second-Line Liver Cancer
14 May 2019
Eli Lilly and Company announced that the FDA has granted approval to its already approved cancer drug, Cyramza for the second-line treatment of patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Their decision was based on the data from the REACH -2 study, which evaluated the benefit of Cyramza as a single agent in HCC patients who were intolerant to or experienced disease progression after treatment with Amgen/Bayer’s Nexavar. The data from the study showed that treatment with Cyramza in combination with erlotinib significantly delayed disease progression in previously untreated patients.

How Liver Protein Can Aid In Developing Vaccine For Hepatitis C
13 May 2019
Researchers have identified small differences in a liver cell protein that can facilitate the development of a mouse model of chronic hepatitis C (HCV). Mice which were genetically engineered to produce human proteins called cyclophilin A, and with suppressed immune systems can be infected with HCV. “When we put this ‘humanized’ version of mouse cyclophilin A into liver cancer cells that normally do not replicate HCV, we saw increases in viral replication,” said Jenna Gaska, a graduate student at Princeton University. Different versions of cyclophilin A were tested in mouse liver cells which also contained several other proteins required for HCV entry and replication.

The Future Of HCC Management
13 May 2019
Riccardo Lencioni, MD states that Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a unique cancer in that even those patients who are suitable candidates for radical therapy with resection or ablation are exposed to a very high rate of tumor recurrences. Unfortunately, outcomes are unsatisfactory in the long term. Lencioni believes that ongoing studies combining the best locoregional approaches with ablation, or chemoembolization, or radioembolization and the checkpoint inhibitors will try to clarify whether there is a synergy between these 2 therapies. These trials hope to offer more patients a chance for cure, or at least for a sustained response.

Abivax And Scripps Research Announce FDA Approval To Initiate A Phase 1/2 Clinical Trial With ABX196 In Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma
13 May 2019
Abivax, a clinical-stage biotechnology company, has been collaborating with Scripps Research to develop novel treatments which harness the power of the immune system. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted an investigational new drug (IND) application for ABX196, which showed potent efficacy in HCC animal models. The open IND allows Abivax to test ABX196 in combination with nivolumab (Opdivo), a checkpoint inhibitor, in a first Phase 1/2 clinical trial to treat patients with HCC. ABX196, both alone and in combination with a checkpoint inhibitor, showed a significant therapeutic effect in reducing tumor growth as measured by MRI and increasing survival in mice with HCC.

Enzo Biochem (ENZ) Issued U.S. Patent For Treatment Of Liver Cancer Using Ozanimod
10 May 2019
Enzo Biochem, Inc. has announced that U.S. Patent approval entitled “Sphingosine Pathway Modulating Compounds for the Treatment of Cancers” that is directed to methods for treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) using the compound Ozanimod. Elazar Rabbani, CEO of Enzo stated, “Our findings with Ozanimod provide further validation for targeting the sphingosine pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and complement our current program to develop Enzo’s proprietary sphingosine kinase inhibitor, SK1-I, for the treatment of HCC. Animal xenotransplantation studies examining the efficacy of each of SK1-I and Ozanimod against tumors derived from human liver cancer cells are currently in progress.”

MR Imaging Evaluation Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated With SBRT
10 May 2019
According to a study, a standard response assessment such as modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) should be used with caution after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) therapy, so that treatment response is not misinterpreted. The study also shows that arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE) is a key feature of untreated or recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The study was conducted to determine the natural history of imaging findings seen by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of HCC treated with SBRT. Within the first 12 months after SBRT, size decreased in 66% of treated tumors.

Ramucirumab for Patients with AFP-High Hepatocellular Carcinoma Granted FDA Approval
10 May 2019
The FDA have approved ramucirumab (Cyramza), developed by Eli Lilly, as a single agent in certain patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The approval is based on data from the REACH-2 clinical trial evaluating the drug in 292 patients with advanced HCC with alpha fetoprotein (AFP) greater than or equal to 400 ng/mL who had disease progression on or after sorafenib or were intolerant. “Advanced liver cancer is an aggressive disease that has a poor prognosis – and for those with elevated AFP levels, the prognosis is even more dismal,” explained Levi Garraway, MD, PhD, senior vice president of global development and medical affairs at Lilly Oncology.

Highland Scientist’s Liver Cancer Therapy Passes Clinical Trials
9 May 2019
Jun Wei, a professor of genetics at the Inverness-based University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI), has devised a kit to screen blood bank stock for samples which have high levels of a cancer-fighting antibody. Plasma containing the required high levels of the antibody can then be infused into patients to kill liver cancer cells. Clinical trials have showed that patients who received the new therapy survived for an average of one year longer than those who received conventional treatment. “This is a promising immunotherapy for cancer treatment with anticancer antibodies from our own blood,” said Wei. Qingdao Hailanshen Biotechnology has been supporting these clinical trials for over three years.

Hepatic Arterial Infusion Of Chemotherapy Improves OS In Hepatocellular Carcinoma Subset
9 May 2019
According to a phase III trial, patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and portal vein invasion achieved longer overall survival (OS) with the addition of hepatic arterial cell infusion of FOLFOX to sorafenib. Previous trial shave shown that sorafenib alone has a median OS of 5.5 to 7.2 months. MinKe He, MD, of the department of hepatobiliary oncology at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China and his team evaluated the safety and efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion of FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, fluorouracil and leucovorin) plus sorafenib vs. sorafenib monotherapy among 247 patients.

Liver Cancer Breakthrough At The Hormel Institute
7 May 2019
Dr. Ningling Kang, head of the Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis lab at The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota and team analyze protein’s role in creating a tumor-promoting microenvironment. In their study they describe the importance of a protein that helps make the liver a good environment for tumor growth. Through recruitment of the cancer cells, hepatic stellate cells integrate into the tumor mass to become tumor-promoting myofibroblasts. The research group identified that a nuclear protein called p300 is required for the TGF-beta induced transition of hepatic stellate cells to tumor-promoting myofibroblasts.

Percutaneous Ablation Vs. Surgery For Hepatocellular Carcinoma
7 May 2019
According to a recent study, percutaneous liver ablation interventions (IRs) in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) are associated with lower in hospital mortality, length of hospital stays (LOS), and hospitalization costs as compared to surgery. A total of 557,071 hospitalizations in patients with HCC from 2002 to 2015 were extracted from the National Inpatient Sample database. This included 13,618 IRs and 44,629 surgical procedures performed. The results of the study results showed IR was associated with 78% lower in-hospital mortality, 37% higher routine discharge to home, 67% lower LOS, and 71% lower cost.

Can-Fite Moves Forward With Advanced Liver Cancer Therapy
6 May 2019
The FDA granted both orphan drug designation and fast track status to Namodenoson, an advanced liver cancer therapy candidate from Can-Fite BioPharma. liver cancer therapy candidate from Can-Fite BioPharma, according to a press release. Can-Fite recently announced results from a phase 2 study of Namodensson, in which the therapy increased overall survival in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Namodenoson is a small orally bioavailable drug that binds to the A3 adenosine receptor. Despite not meeting the phase 2 primary endpoint, Can-Fite has a meeting with the FDA to review a plan for a phase 3 clinical trial.

Aflatoxins: A Cause Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
30 April 2019
The most common cause of Hepatocellular Carcinoma are aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are the byproducts of fungi that are found on agricultural crops like maize, peanut, cottonseed and tree nuts. There are more than 14 types of aflatoxins but AFB1, B2, G1, G2 are more common and carcinogenic to human and animals. When aflatoxin amounts increase, and when is a continuous exposure, this will cause AFBO to bind to the proteins and cause necrosis of the hepatocytes which can lead to cirrhosis. AFBO binds to DNA, which leads to genetic change in the target cell and causes DNA strand breakage. DNA base damage and oxidative damage ultimately leads to cancer.

Deals And Data In The Offing For Oncimmune
25 April 2019
The London-listed diagnostics group Oncimmune, is focusing on growing sales, and is looking forward to publishing trial data soon. They are looking to use the immune system to diagnose cancer. Oncimmune sells EarlyCDT-Liver to detect Hepatocellular Carcinoma and has tests for many other cancers as well. Their current trial data involves the EarlyCDT-Lung cancer test. Oncimmune has an agreement with Genostics, in which Genostics has licensed the entire EarlyCDT portfolio.

Most Patients Stick With Milciclib In Tiziana Life Sciences Study
24 April 2019
The biotechnology firm, Tiziana Life Sciences PLC, has reposted data from its clinical trial involving milciclib in patients with advanced liver cancer. 80% of patients who completed treatment within the phase 2a trial have requested continuation of the treatment. A safety review stated, the treatment “was not associated with unexpected signs or signals of toxicity” when administered to patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Ten patients were administered Milciclib over a six-month study period. “Demonstration of safety and clinical activity is important milestone to move forward with strategic options for further clinical development of milciclib either as a single agent or in combination with one of the [US Food & Drug Administration] approved drugs for treatment of [Hepatocellular Carcinoma] patients,” said Tiziana Chief Executive & Chief Scientific Officer Kunwar Shailubhai.

Using Yttrium-90 For Liver Cancer Therapy In Clinical Stage
24 April 2019
Radioembolization (Y90) is a minimally invasive procedure that combines embolization and radiation therapy to treat liver cancer. Tiny glass or resin beads filled with the radioactive isotope yttrium Y-90 are placed inside the blood vessels that feed a tumor. Pars Isotop Company is the main producer of the new radiopharmaceutical. Y-90 resin microspheres has been tested on 12 patients with liver cancer, with the help of Tehran and Shiraz Medical Sciences Universities. Radiopharmaceuticals can be used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.

Urine-Based Liquid Biopsy For Non-Urological Cancers
23 April 2019
Advances in technology and science, now use less invasive blood liquid biopsy for the study of cancer genetics. Early research was limited to tissue specimens obtained from invasive biopsy and surgical resections. Molecular biomarker research and show that tumor-derived DNA in the circulation can be detected in urine. Using Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) as a study model, scientists further demonstrated the detection of ctDNA in the urine. The data results show that the HMW urine DNA was mostly derived from the sloughed-off cell debris of the urinary tract, and the LMW urine DNA was mostly derived from the circulation that was enriched for tumor-derived DNA alterations if a tumor was present.

What’s The Most Cost-Effective Imaging Method For Diagnosing, Monitoring HCC Patients?
22 April 2019
According to a study published in the American Journal of Roentgenology. CT diagnosis and surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the most cost-effective imaging-based strategy. North American guidelines currently recommend ultrasound (US) surveillance every six months in patients at risk for HCC. According to Lima et al., strategies that rely solely on a single exam for surveillance and diagnosis, such as strategy E, are more likely to have higher rates of false-positive diagnoses. “Before implementing a surveillance program incorporating imaging modalities other than ultrasound, future studies should address the economic burden associated with false-positive HCC diagnoses. Also, future prospective trials should assess the accuracy of abbreviated MRI examinations in a surveillance setting,” the authors concluded.

Research Closer To Finding Ways To Help Patients With Hepatitis
20 April 2019
MicroRNA are small, single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate T-cell immunity by targeting key factors, signaling and proteins and cytokines associated with T-cell activation, differentiation, and function. T-cell immunity plays a vital role in pathogen infections. Although the host innate immune system senses and responds to eliminate it, the hepatitis C virus evades the onslaught and establishes persistent infection in the liver. The immune system has developed two areas, innate and adaptive immunity. They work together to prevent infection and limit the damage done by invading bugs. While, liver resection remains the popular treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), the aim of this study was to explore alterations of immune cells in HCC patients with liver resections. Regulatory T-cells are shown to increase the peripheral blood in HCC.

100 Patients From Odisha Undergo Liver Transplant At Gleneagles Global Hospital Hyderabad
20 April 2019
Lakdi-ka-pul is currently host to one of the busiest and comprehensive liver disease management programs. The center performs adult as well as pediatric liver transplants. So far, they have performed over 700 liver transplants which includes over 100 pediatric liver transplants. The hospital has exclusive liver (Intensive Care Unit) ICU and liver (Occupational Therapy) OT. The visionary leader and well acclaimed surgeon and Chairman of Gleneagles Global Hospitals, Dr. K. Ravindranath dreamt to set up world-class multi organ transplant centers in India and collaborated with Kings College hospital in London. “If any of the liver tests are abnormal, then they definitely indicate the need for additional evaluation” he stated.

AGA Clinical Practice Update: DAAs For Hepatitis C And Hepatocellular Cancer
19 April 2019
The American Gastroenterological Association collected evidence describing interactions between oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C and hepatocellular cancer regarding incidence, recurrence, and efficacy. DAA treatments are associated with reduced incidence of hepatocellular cancer and relative reduction is similar for patients with and without cirrhosis. For patients with cirrhosis, achieving sustained virologic response, hepatocellular cancer incidence and hepatocellular cancer survival was similar between DAA-treated patients and interferon-treated patients. Conflicting studies fail to show conclusive data that DAA therapy is associated with differential time-to-recurrence, decreased or increased risk, or recurrent hepatocellular cancer aggressiveness in patients who achieve complete response to hepatocellular cancer therapy. DAA therapy should not be withheld from these patients, but DAA therapy can be deferred for 4 to 6 months to confirm therapy response Patients will also require indefinite surveillance every 3 to 6 months with dynamic contrast enhanced computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.

Liquid Biopsy: An Old Concept With A New Twist
18 April 2019
A liquid biopsy is a simple noninvasive alternative to tissue biopsies, in which a body fluid specimen is obtained for detailed laboratory analyses. A liquid biopsy for cancer detection or management is an old concept with a new twist. Tumor cells were first found in circulation in the late 19th century, and the term “cell-free DNA (cfDNA),” which referred to fragmented DNA found outside cells in the blood, was first reported by Mandel and Metais in 1948. Then, work in the 1970s revealed that patients with cancer tended to have an increased concentration of cfDNA in their blood. A study by Cohen and his team of scientists used a test called CancerSEEK that showed promise for cancer screening by liquid biopsies. Their cohort involved more than 1000 patients with cancer. Their findings suggested that individuals who test positive twice by liquid biopsy should undergo imaging to find the tumor site.

Real-Life Experiences Demonstrate Benefit Of Sorafenib-Regorafenib Sequential Therapy In Advanced HCC
18 April 2019
Patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) demonstrated real-life benefit in a study with sorafenib (Nexavar) followed by regorafenib (Stivarga). Overall survival (OS) benefit with the sequence of targeted therapies was significant when calculated from the initiation of first-line treatment. Findings from the phase III RESORCE trial led to the approval in April 2017 of regorafenib as a second-line therapy for patients with unresectable HCC who had previously received treatment with sorafenib. Patients with HCC who received regorafenib after progression on sorafenib treatment demonstrated a median OS of 10.6 months.

Celsion Corporation Announces Issuance Of New Patent For Thermodox®
17 April 2019
Celsion Corporation, a clinical stage oncology drug development company, announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted U.S. Patent No. 10,251,901 B2 – Thermosensitive Nanoparticle Formulations and Method of Making the Same. This new patent strengthens the coverage of ThermoDox®, Celsion’s heat-activated liposomal platform technology, currently in Phase III development for the treatment of primary liver cancer. The Company’s 556-patient global Phase III OPTIMA Study in HCC completed enrollment in August 2018 at 65 clinical sites in North America, Europe, China, S. Korea, Taiwan and Southeast Asia.

New Role For Innate Immune Sensor: Suppressing Liver Cancer
16 April 2019
UT Southwestern researchers have found that a protein in the body's innate immune system that responds to gut microbes can suppress the most common type of liver cancer. They have shown that NLRP12, an innate immune sensor, has a protective effect against Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we demonstrated that NLRP12 responds to gut microbes and plays a critical role in suppressing a common form of liver cancer,” said Dr. Hasan Zaki, Assistant Professor of Pathology at UT Southwestern and corresponding author of the study. To understand why this occurred, the researchers looked at the signals sent by tumor cells in mice with and without the NLRP12 gene. Dr. Zaki said his team is now further exploring the precise mechanism through which NLRP12 regulates the JNK pathway.

Some Patients May Be Eligible For Liver Resection After SIRT
16 April 2019
Researchers have reported that patients that have undergone selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 (Y-90) may be eligible for liver resection. To better understand the circumstances in which resection is possible, the investigators reviewed data on all patients who underwent liver resection following SIRT. There were 12 patients who were treated with SIRT followed by liver resection, 5 of which had HCC. According to RECIST (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors), there was a partial response shown in all cases. “In selected cases, liver resection is possible post SIRT. As this can represent a potentially curative option, it is important to reconsider resection in the follow-up of patients undergoing SIRT,” the researchers said.

Cancer ‘Vaccine Factories,’ Cataloguing DNA Weaknesses, NHS Drug Decisions And Cancer Sniffing Canines
13 April 2019
Scientists from the Wellcome Sanger Institute in Cambridge are building a list of the most promising potential cancer drug targets. The team is using the DNA-editing tool CRISPR to switch off every gene, one-by-one, in over 300 different types of lab-grown cancer cells. So far, they’ve ranked 600 promising drug targets. Immune-boosting combo could help create cancer ‘vaccine factories.’ Scientists in the US are investigating the potential benefits of a highly purified version of the chilli compound capsaicin in slowing cancer spread. A trio of beagles were trained to ‘sniff out cancer.’ The dogs were able to pick out patients with lung cancer that had spread to other parts of the body with a 96.7% accuracy.

FDA Approves Expanded Monotherapy Label For Merck’s KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab)
12 April 2019
In the Phase 3 KEYNOTE-042 trial KEYTRUDA monotherapy demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in OS compared with chemotherapy alone in patients. The study was a randomized, multi-center, open-label, active-controlled and enrolled 1,274 patients. KEYTRUDA is indicated for the treatment of patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) who have been previously treated with sorafenib. The recommended dose of KEYTRUDA is 200 mg as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes every three weeks up to 24 months.

New Cancer Vaccine Study Has Similarities To U Of R Research
12 April 2019
New York Mount Sinai Hospital tested the new vaccine on 11 patients who have advanced stage lymphoma and has shown to be successful. The vaccine is used in people who already have cancer. Immune stimulants are injected directly into a tumor to teach the immune system to destroy it. Some patients had full remission from months to years. The study was published earlier this month in Nature Medicine. “This is very different from a preventative vaccine,” said Dr. Patrick Reagan, assistant professor of medicine at URMC. “This is a vaccine where we are actually trying to stimulate your immune system to attack the cancer.” The vaccine is also being tested in the lab for liver cancer.

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir ± Ribavirin Effective, Safe In HCV With Advanced Liver Disease
11 April 2019
A recent study involving multiple centers found that Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir with or without Ribavirin is an effective and tolerable treatment in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection with advanced liver disease. The study involved 200 patients with chronic hepatitis C with advanced liver disease to determine the association of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir treatment with a new occurrence and/or recurrence of HCC during and after antiviral treatment. HCC recurrence was less common in patients who received curative treatment for HCC compared with those who received noncurative treatment.

Can-Fite Announces Late-Breaking Abstract Presentation On Namodenoson™ Phase II Results At ASCO
10 April 2019
Can-Fite BioPharma Ltd., a biotechnology company, just completed a multicenter Phase II trial in patients with advanced liver cancer. The trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating efficacy and safety of namodenoson (CF102). Namodenoson is a small orally bioavailable drug that binds with high affinity and selectivity to the A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR). A3AR is highly expressed in diseased cells whereas low expression is found in normal cells. Namodenoson has been granted Orphan Drug Designation in the U.S. and Europe and Fast Track Designation as a second line treatment for HCC by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Namodenoson has also shown proof of concept to potentially treat other cancers as well.

Discovery Of A Host mRNA That Inhibits Immune Functions Of Antiviral Protein RIG-I
10 April 2019
A group of scientists at Kanazawa University investigated the effects of SeP on antiviral immune responses in the liver, using cultured cells, mice and clinical specimens. They found that HCV infection augmented SeP expression in cultured cells. By analyzing clinical specimens, it was found that serum SeP levels were higher in HCV-infected patients. RIG-I protein was thought only to recognize RNAs of pathogens invading cells thus protecting against pathogens. So far, very few host mRNAs have been reported acting like SeP mRNA, which functions as a ‘decoy' to bind RIG-I thus repressing its functions. This information is important for understanding immune tolerance in the liver and autoimmune diseases. The study is expected to lead to further investigations of host RNAs regulating RIG-I and to the development of clinical application targeting such mRNAs.

The Protein P38gamma Identified As A New Therapeutic Target In Liver Cancer
10 April 2019
A recent research study conducted by a team of researchers at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) led by Guadalupe Sabio has discovered an enzyme that could become a new pharmacological target in the treatment of liver cancer. They have shown an important role for p38gamma in the initiation of cell division in the liver, and that p38gamma and CDK2 both act as a tumor suppressor. To test whether p38gamma is implicated in cell division, study first author Antonia Tomás-Loba examined the outcome of chemically inducing liver cancer in mice that lack the enzyme. Her results were very promising.

Peripheral Neuropathy Reported In Liver Cancer Drug Stivarga
9 April 2019
The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety plans to review the European Commission’s safety information about Stivarga (regorafenib). A patient reported peripheral neuropathy while taking Stivarga. Peripheral neuropathy causes infections in peripheral nerves at the tips of fingers and toes and makes them feel numb. In severe cases, patients find it difficult to walk, and experience a poor sense of balance. Result from the RESORCE trial on 573 patients in 21 countries showed the median overall survival of patients who used Stivarga after Nexavar treatment was 26 months. Stivarga was developed by Bayer as a potent in liver cancer treatment.

Personalized T Cells Destroy Common Liver Cancer
9 April 2019
Researchers have engineered hepatitis B virus-specific T cells, a type of immune cell found in the body, to treat Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The t-cells were then individualized to the patient. The team successfully performed the approach on two liver transplanted patients who had hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated liver cancer recurrence. “In this study we showed that the integrated HBV-DNA gene components in the HCC cells were able to activate functional HBV-specific T cells,” says senior coauthor Antonio Bertoletti, a professor from the emerging infectious diseases program at Duke-NUS Medical School. The researchers plan to further refine the technique and treatment strategy with further research and trials to improve the efficacy of the therapy.

Blue Faery Grants Liver Cancer Research Award
8 April 2019
This year Blue Faery: The Adrienne Wilson Liver Cancer Association announced their winner of the Blue Faery Award (BFA) for Excellence in Liver Cancer Research was given to Dr. Jinsil Seong, Professor at Yonsei University Medical College. Professor Seong is one of a few who pioneered radiotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. She has devoted her entire career on radiotherapy of HCC by practicing, educating and pursuing clinical research. Upon receiving the BFA Dr. Jinsil Seong stated, “I am truly honored and impressed to join world leaders in [the] HCC field who won the award previously. This encourages me to keep going forward for [a] better future of our HCC patients!” She is currently the president-elect of the Asia Pacific Primary Liver cancer Expert (APPLE) association, which is a world leading liver cancer association.

U.S. Liver Cancer Deaths More Common With Less Education
8 April 2019
In a recent observational study, researchers collected data from the year 2000 through 2015. They found that nationwide, liver cancer death rates rose from 7.5 to 11.2 fatalities for every 100,000 men, and from 2.8 to 3.8 fatalities for every 100,000 women. These patients were between 25 and 74 years old. In men, however, the increases only occurred among those without a college degree. Among women, liver cancer death rates rose across all education levels, with the smallest increase for college-educated women. Risk of dying from liver cancer can mitigated if a person has a better job, better insurance, or a healthier lifestyle.

TGen Finds Gene Associated With Most Common Liver Cancer
7 April 2019
Dr. Johanna DiStefano, head of the Diabetes and Fibrotic Disease Unit at Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) and researchers provide experimental evidence supporting the AKR1B10 enzyme as a promising therapeutic target for HCC. This gene was first identified and characterized in 1998. AKR1B10 has a conflicting role in HCC development and progression. An over-expression may indicate a patient has HCC, and the suppression of this gene may also be a way to stop cancer progression. AKR1B10 has emerged as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC, studies show this enzyme also plays a role in the development and progression of HCC.

Hormone That Protects Women From Liver Cancer
6 April 2019
Guadalupe Sabio at the Spanish National Center for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC) in Spain and staff have have discovered that a hormone that if present at higher levels in women, can keep them away from liver cancer. Their study also suggests that the disease is more common in men. Using mouse models, they found that inhibiting testosterone production in males, increased their adiponectin levels and reduced tumor growth. Most importantly, their study showed that adiponectin and metformin, a common antidiabetic drug, could be used as novel treatments for liver cancer.

After A Delay, Can-Fite Digs Into Subpopulation Data As Liver Cancer Drug Fails To Hit Primary Endpoint
26 March 2019
Israeli biotech Can-Fite missed the primary endpoint in a mid-stage test of its experimental late-stage liver cancer drug namodenoson. The study failed to achieve a boost in median overall survival across 78 patients with varying forms of advanced liver cancer. The A3 adenosine receptor agonist was originated by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. Last summer, Can-Fite delayed publication of the data from this trial, saying at the time that the delay was due to “the unexpected longevity of patients enrolled into this trial,” according to its medical director, Michael Silverman, M.D.

Whole Grains Help Reduce Liver Cancer By 40 Percent
22 March 2019
Preliminary research advises that a diet containing whole grains may reduce the risk of liver cancer by 40 percent. Liver cancer, particularly Hepatocellular Carcinoma or HCC, is projected to become the third most common type of cancer by 2030. The study looked at over 125,000 patients and found that an increase of whole grains is related to a reduced risk of liver cancer. Those who consumed the highest amounts of whole grains had a 37 percent lower risk of liver cancer compared to those who consumed the least amount. The study showed that a diet high in whole grains helped to reduce many of the risk factors associated with HCC, such as inflammation.

Liver Resection Vs TACE For Intermediate Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma
21 March 2019
According to a study, liver resection may lead to better outcomes than transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for cirrhotic patients Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The authors of the current study used a Markov model that compared liver resection with TACE over a 15-year period. Data from 31 studies were included in the analysis. Results revealed that patients in the resection group had a mean of 77.8 months expected survival time at 5 years and a survival rate of 47.1%. Those in the TACE group had 48.6 months mean survival and 25.7% survival rate. “Liver resection is superior to TACE regarding the OS of compensated cirrhotic patients with resectable intermediate‐stage HCC. Future large‐scale high‐quality studies are required to stratify patients at this stage for different optimal treatments,” the investigators concluded.

Diabetes Development Linked To Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Mortality In Hepatitis B
20 March 2019
Researchers used study participant data from people with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) without diabetes mellitus (DM), from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. It has been shown that for patients with CHB virus, development of DM is an independent risk factor for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The study included information on over 2900 patients. At the 11-year follow up, 11.8% of participants developed HCC. Compared with participants without DM, participants with DM had significantly higher risk for HCC development.

Liver Cancer: Discovery Of New Biomarker For Liver Dysfunction Following Partial Hepatectomy
18 March 2019
Liver failure is the most serious complication that can occur following liver resection. The tests available to gage pre-operative risk are expensive and time-consuming. A study done by MedUni Vienna research group has shown that a microRNA signature has the potential to serve as a rapid and reliable predictor. The team, led by Patrick Starlinger from MedUni Vienna's Department of Surgery and Alice Assinger from MedUni Vienna's Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, focused on the prediction of postoperative liver dysfunction and clinical outcomes that can be expected following liver resection. MicroRNA signatures are a new approach in this research and are already known as a significant diagnostic tool.

Research Suggests Liver Cells Are More Susceptible To Cancer
18 March 2019
Researchers at the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania have found that hepatocytes, the chief functional cells of the liver, make the liver more susceptible to cancer cells. The hepatocytes respond to inflammation by activating a protein called STAT3. This then increases the production of other proteins called SAA. These proteins remodel the liver and create the “soil” needed for cancer cells to “seed.” The researchers found that stopping this process by using antibodies that block IL 6, the inflammatory signal that drives this chain reaction, can limit the potential of cancer to spread to the liver. The team, along with researchers from the University of Kentucky showed in their study that therapies targeting hepatocytes may be able to prevent cancer from spreading to the liver.

Reprogramming T Cells To Attack Solid Tumors
18 March 2019
An international team, led by Andrea Pavesi, at A*STAR's Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB), have worked to genetically engineer human T cells to have them specifically attack liver cancer cells in patients with Hepatitis B, and to have the potential for long-term antitumor efficacy. Checkpoint inhibitor therapy uses antibodies to block inhibitory molecules that would otherwise stop T cells from attacking tumors. The receptor protein PD-1is the key to cell exhaustion and a target of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Adoptive cell therapy involves modifying patient-derived T cells outside the body, to increase their potency, and then injecting them back into the patient.

Daily Aspirin May Reduce HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk
18 March 2019
A recent study conducted by Lee and colleagues in Taiwan, observed patients on a daily aspirin regimen. Their data showed that patients with hepatitis B virus and were giving aspirin daily, had a 29% lower risk of developing Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Between 1997 and 2012, the researchers recruited and screened 10,615 participants with chronic HBV. Of these patients, 2,123 received daily aspirin for 90 or more consecutive days. At 5 years, patients in the treated group had a significantly lower cumulative incidence of HCC than those in the untreated group. “Daily aspirin therapy may be of help to further improve the chemoprevention of HBV-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma,” Lee and colleagues concluded.

Novel Agents Offer Hope In Hepatocellular Carcinoma
15 March 2019
Sorafenib (Nexavar) has been the only FDA-approved agent available for the first-line treatment of patients with HCC, up until a few years ago. Lenvatinib (Lenvima) has shown to be non-inferior to sorafenib as presented in the findings of the phase III REFLECT trial. Additionally, the FDA review of ramucirumab (Cyramza) is very much anticipated as well. According to Michael A. Morse, MD, FACP, MHS, Cyramza differs from the other drugs on the market in that it is a recombinant monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGFR2, and for which there may be a biomarker. Researchers from the phase III REACH-2 trial have shown improved overall survival (OS) as compared with patients taking the placebo and who had previously been treated with sorafenib.

Results Of Early-Stage Liver Cancer Detection Using Liquid Biopsy Published
13 March 2019
A recent pilot study done by researchers from the National Cancer Center/ Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Genetron Health (Beijing) Co. Ltd (Genetron) focused on early detection of liver cancer in a cohort of HBV carriers at risk for developing HCC. The screening technology, known as HCCscreen, relies on detecting a combination of tumor-specific mutations in cell free DNA (cfDNA) and protein markers. A total of 331 HBV carriers were tested using HCCscreen. The combination of these markers enabled excellent performance of the assessment in a cohort of HBV carriers who had no other symptoms. Using a noninvasive blood test, the liquid biopsy technology can provide important diagnostic indicators HBV carriers. The research team is currently conducting a larger scale clinical trial to further improve and validate the method.

Preclinical Data Shows Combination Immunotherapy Could Stop Liver Cancer Growth
13 March 2019
Researchers from UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center recently reported that combining two reagents effectively stopped the progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). They successfully combined a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) polyinosinicpolycytidylic acid (polyIC) with a programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody to achieve this. Feng’s team discovered unexpectedly that polyIC strongly boosts several anti-tumor immune functions in the liver, and that it prevents HCC if administered in the pre-cancer stage. Otherwise, once the tumor is already formed, polyIC has no effect. More research will be done to develop a liver cancer prevention strategy for the large population of patients with chronic liver disease and who at risk for liver cancer development.

Lucence Diagnostics To Develop AI Tools For Liver Cancer Treatment
12 March 2019
Lucence Diagnostics has recently announced their new project to develop AI algorithms for improving diagnosis and treatment of liver cancer. Lucence Diagnostics is a genomic medicine company with hopes for a world without avoidable cancer deaths. They specialize in non-invasive blood tests that improve cancer detection and treatment selection. Researchers, led by Olivier Gevaert, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine and of Biomedical Data Science at the Stanford University School of Medicine, will use tumor imaging and molecular data of liver cancer patients to help doctors make better treatment decisions. This study will evaluate over 5,000 patients.

Computer Neural Network Shows Potential For Liver Cancer Diagnosis
6 March 2019
Researchers from Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Second Hospital of Suzhou University and other research institutions have developed the neural network for HCC grading. They achieved this by combining two classic neural networks and training the network with enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance images using 75 patients. The grading of HCC is very important in the clinical diagnoses, treatments and prognoses of the disease. Their proposed model achieved an accuracy of 83% in classifying HCC. Researchers plan to use the model for liver cancer diagnosis and treatment system, which will help doctors make better surgery plans for liver cancer patients.

Eating Tomatoes To Fight Liver Cancer
1 March 2019
A recent study using mouse models found that the lycopene in tomatoes reduced fatty liver disease, inflammation, and liver cancer development caused by high-fat diets. Xiang-Dong Wang, a senior scientist and associate director of the Jean Mayer USDA Human Research Center on Aging at Tufts, is conducting several studies to see how food can help prevent cancer development. One of the foods of interest is tomatoes, which are rich in lycopene, a naturally occurring pigment that gives many fruits and vegetables their reddish hue. Researchers evaluated how well tomato powder protected mice against inflammation and cancer, that were originally infected with a liver carcinogen and then fed an unhealthy high-fat diet.

First Patient Dosed in a Clinical Trial of Tyvyt® (Sintilimab injection) in Combination with IBI305 as First Line Treatment for Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
27 February 2019
Innovent Biologics, Inc. has announced that the first patient has been dosed in ORIENT-32 trial. This trial that evaluates Tyvyt® (sintilimab injection) as first-line treatment for patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma. 566 patients will be enrolled in the study. Tyvyt® is an innovative drug jointly developed in China by Innovent and Eli Lilly and Company. Currently, more than twenty clinical studies of sintilimab injection, including seven registration studies, are ongoing to evaluate the efficacy of sintilimab injection on other solid tumors.

HIV Infection Linked To Shorter Survival In Hepatocellular Carcinoma
22 February 2019
HIV seropositivity appeared associated with shorter overall survival among patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma despite sufficient antiretroviral treatment, according to results of a global multicohort study published in Journal of Clinical Oncology. Researchers analyzed 1,588 patients with HCC who received no prior anticancer treatment which included 132 HIV-positive patients and 1,456 HIV-negative patients. Results reported overall survival of 2.2 months among HIV-positive patients and 4.1 months among those not infected with HIV. The inferior probability of survival that accompanies HCC patients with HIV deserves to be considered in patient counseling and therapeutic decision-making. Mechanistic studies on clinical samples evaluating the immunopathologic features of HIV-associated HCC in comparison with HIV-negative controls are urgently required.

Pembrolizumab Misses Primary Endpoints in HCC Trial
20 February 2019
The KEYNOTE-240 trial (NCT02702401) has reportedly failed at its coprimary endpoints, progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS). KEYNOTE-240 is the confirmatory trial for pembrolizumab, which was granted an accelerated approval in November 2018 for patients with HCC who were previously treated with sorafenib (Nexavar), based on data from the phase II KEYNOTE-224 trial. In the double-blind, phase III KEYNOTE-240 trial, 413 patients were randomized to receive pembrolizumab plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care in patients with advanced HCC who previously received systemic therapy. The safety profile of pembrolizumab in KEYNOTE-240 was consistent with what has been observed in prior studies with the PD-1 inhibitor.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Diagnosis, Prognosis And Treatment May Improve By Identifying A Protein
20 February 2019
Researchers at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology have found elevated expression of tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) in the tumor tissue of more than 90% of patients studied and was more prevalent than any other molecular marker used to detect Hepatocellular Carcinoma in tumor tissue. They also found that higher tumor TonEBP expression was associated with larger tumor size, advanced tumor grade, recurrence and its migration to other parts of the body, thus acting as a useful tool in predicting Hepatocellular Carcinoma prognosis. Tone’s role in Hepatocellular Carcinoma is linked to its involvement in inflammation. Targeting TonEBP could be an attractive strategy to prevent the development, spread and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Teasing Out The Three Subtypes Of Liver Cancer
14 February 2019
A research team based at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Japan, has combined genomic and immunological data to classify Hepatocellular Carcinoma into three distinct subgroups. The team, led by Professor Shinji Tanaka, combined data on mutations, gene expression patterns and immunological status to shed light on the variation among cases. They reviewed the data of 183 surgically removed HCC tumors. The researchers revealed three types of HCC, tumors with mutation in the CTNNB1 gene and immune suppression, tumors associated with conditions such as obesity and diabetes, and tumors with genomic instability. Patients with tumors belonging to the third group had a worse prognosis.

Eureka Plans US Trial Testing ET140202 T-cell Therapy in Liver Cancer Patients
13 February 2019
Eureka Therapeutics is planning a Phase 1/2 clinical trial in the United States scheduled to begin sometime in the first half of 2019. The trial will focus on safety and effectiveness of its investigational T-cell therapy ET140202 in patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma. ET140202 is a new T-cell therapy product that uses natural mechanisms of T-cells to fight cancer. In an ongoing Phase 1 trial (NCT03349255) in China, ET140202 was safe and did not cause the normal side effects associated with other T-cell treatments. In the trial, three of the six patients experienced a reduction in tumor size, and one had a complete response.

Study Reaffirms Safety of Hepatitis C Meds in Liver Cancer Patients
12 February 2019
Recent research findings contradict previous research suggesting that antiviral drugs might increase these patients' risk of liver cancer recurrence. The previous study which involved a single-center study from Spanish investigators in 2016 that “gained a lot of press and sparked fear about treating liver cancer patients for their hepatitis C,” said Dr. Amit Singal, medical director of the liver tumor program at UT Southwestern Medical Center, in Dallas. The investigators compared liver cancer recurrence in those who were and were not given direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C. The cancer recurrence rates were 42 percent among those who received the antiviral drugs and 59 percent among those who did not receive the medication.

Dual Modality Radiation May Improve Survival in HCC with Gross Vascular Invasion
12 February 2019
Researchers show that patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and gross vascular invasion (GVI) may have improved overall survival (OS) after being treated with dual modality radiation with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and transarterial radioembolization (TARE). Systemic therapy such as sorafenib has had poor outcomes for patients with HCC and GVI, so researchers undertook the study to determine whether there were differences in outcomes using dual modality radiation (EBRT+TARE) compared with EBRT alone. For the 12 patients who had EBRT and TARE delivered within 2 months as planned, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 218 days for dual modality radiation compared with 63 days for only EBRT.

Liver Cancer Becoming Prominent Among Indian Youngsters Due to Poor Lifestyle
12 February 2019
While surgery to remove a liver tumor offers the best chance for a cure, surgery is not an option for more than two-thirds of patients with primary liver cancer. Approximately, seventy percent of patients with liver cancer cannot opt for surgery for many reasons. Interventional radiologists may perform minimally invasive surgeries like embolization or thermal ablation, etc., depending on the patient’s case history. These minimally invasive therapies use imaging techniques such as CT, ultrasound, or MRI to guide the delivery of treatments directly to tumor sites. There are several types of thermal ablation, including radio-frequency ablation, which uses radio waves to super-heat the tumor, and cryoablation, which freezes the tumor.

Biomarkers Associated with Response to Regorafenib in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
11 February 2019
Researchers analyzed plasma and tumor samples from study participants to identify genetic, microRNA (miRNA) and protein biomarkers associated with regorafenib. Archived tumor tissues and baseline plasma samples were obtained from patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) given regorafenib in the RESORCE trial. They analyzed baseline plasma samples from 499 patients. In the RESORCE trial, expression patterns of plasma proteins and miRNAs that related to increased overall survival times of patients with HCC following treatment with regorafenib were identified.

Direct-Acting Antivirals Reduce Risk Of Premature Mortality And Liver Cancer For People With Chronic Hepatitis C
11 February 2019
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an infection which causes complications such as cirrhosis, liver disease, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and many people die as a result. The first prospective, longitudinal study investigating treatment of chronic hepatitis C with direct-acting antivirals, comparing treated and untreated patients, finds that the treatment is associated with reduced risk of mortality and liver cancer, according to a study published in The Lancet. Patients who were treated were 52% less likely to die prematurely than people who were not treated and 33% less likely to present with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.  The study suggests this treatment should be considered for all patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

Study: Anti-Cancer Gene May Fuel Tumor Growth
10 February 2019
According to a study by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, a cancer-fighting gene known as the “guardian of the genome” promotes certain tumors. The study demonstrates a point that oncologists have been making for decades: Cancer is not one disease. Researchers led by Yang Xu based their results on studies of human patients, cell samples and mouse models of cancer. Xu and colleagues found that restoring p53 function in mutated liver cancer cells improves their metabolism by indirectly causing cells to switch to a process called glycolysis. This metabolic change to glycolysis, called the Warburg effect, has been recognized for decades as a characteristic of cancer. In liver cancers, promoting p53 function will induce this metabolic shift, energizing the cancer.

A Hidden Route for Fatty Acids Can Make Cancers Resistant to Therapy
7 February 2019
Researchers from the lab of prof. Sarah-Maria Fendt at the VIB-KU Leuven Center for Cancer Biology have demonstrated that certain tumor cells use an alternative pathway to produce fatty acids. Fatty acid metabolism is an essential process in tumor growth and proliferation. Study outcomes have not always been positive when attempting to block fatty acid metabolism as a therapeutic strategy. It has been found that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is the enzyme that is the only source of newly produced mono-unsaturated fatty acids, which are required for membrane generation. The presence of this alternative metabolic pathway was identified in isolated cancer cells and in lung and liver tumors samples from mice and human patients.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: H-Prune Gene Regulatory Networks
7 February 2019
Haotian Liao and colleagues, at the Liver Surgery and Liver Transplant Dision at the West China Hospital, thoroughly analyzed the role of the H-Prune protein in HCC. The H-Prune protein has associated with lung cancer, breast cancer, medulloblastoma and colorectal liver metastases. The team has shown that H- Prune functions as a tumor promoter in HCC. These findings highlight the importance of a wider approach as a powerful tool to infer the dynamics of cancer. Liao and his team will continue to do more research.

Alcoholic Drinks Are Volatile Cocktail In Liver Cancer Link
5 February 2019
Primary liver cancer is serious and often linked to excessive alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, more people are dying from the disease. Alcohol is a direct contributor to liver cancer, as excessive alcohol consumption is a chief cause of cirrhosis of the liver which happens when scar tissue builds up on the liver stopping it from working properly.

Dr. Li On Preoperative Immunotherapy In Hepatocellular Carcinoma
5 February 2019
A lot of focus in HCC has been placed on the use of immunotherapy in the frontline metastatic setting, says Li. One study (NCT03222076) of interest evaluated the use of either nivolumab (Opdivo) monotherapy or the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab (Yervoy) in patients with resectable disease in the preoperative or adjuvant setting.

Crunching The Data: New Liver Cancer Subtypes Revealed Immunologically
1 February 2019
A research team based at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) has used an integrated data analysis to classify Hepatocellular Carcinoma, the most common type of liver cancer, into three distinct subgroups, which should aid targeted treatment.

Anti-Rejection Drug Rapamycin Shows Promise In Liver Cancer
1 February 2019
Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine were studying the cells that surround the liver’s central vein when they made a serendipitous discovery. Cells with a mutation in a gene called β-catenin also made high levels of the mTOR protein—a fault that they believe could promote the development of cancer.

Commonly Used Anti-Rejection Drug Could Be Repurposed To Treat Some Liver Cancers
31 January 2019
Satdarshan Monga, M.D., professor of pathology and the founding director of the Pittsburgh Liver Research Center at Pitt's School of Medicine and his team of researchers discovered a new use for a commonly used anti-rejection medication. Approximately 20% – 35% percent of liver cancers have a β-catenin mutation, but there is little understanding of how and why these mutations aid the growth of cancer cells. When Monga found similarly high levels of active mTOR in β-catenin mutated liver cancers, he wondered whether the two proteins could be functionally linked.

FDA Accepts New Drug Application For Liver Cancer T-Cell Therapy
30 January 2019
FDA has cleared its investigational new drug application for ET140202 ARTEMIS T-cell therapy for patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Patients who are positive for alpha-fetoprotein could benefit from this new medication. Results from a first-in-human study in China showed that ET140202 demonstrated a favorable safety profile in six patients with no observed neurotoxicity. Additionally, three of the six patients achieved tumor regression. Cheng Liu, PhD, president and CEO of Eureka Therapeutics said, “This is an exciting time for Eureka as we prepare to initiate our U.S. clinical trial in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.” Eureka plans to initiate a phase 1/2 multicenter clinical trial in the U.S. during the first half of 2019.

Fibrosis Markers Tied To Mortality After Liver Cancer Surgery
28 January 2019
A retrospective study suggests that markers of fibrosis, the thickening and scarring of connective tissue, is linked to mortality and survival after liver resection. Dr. Maegawa of Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, and colleagues analyzed 475 patients who underwent hepatectomy between 2000 and 2012. Dr. Maegawa explained that while resection is usually the preferred therapy, tumor ablation and transplant are great alternatives. “This information should be integrated into an overall clinical assessment …. when determining who may be suitable and what the risk is of liver resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.” stated Dr. Maegawa.

Stereotactic Body Radiation Shows Sustained Local Control In Hepatocellular Carcinoma
23 January 2019
According to a North American pooled analysis, presented at Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium, stereotactic body radiation therapy showed promising rates of local control and survival in patients diagnosed with early-stage HCC. “Stereotactic body radiation therapy is a noninvasive, ablative treatment for patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma,” Ashwathy Susan Mathew, DNB, MBBS, MD, clinical fellow in the department of radiation oncology at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, and colleagues wrote. Analysis included 310 patients with stage I to stage IIIa HCC treated with radical-intent SBRT. Overall, 37.9% of patients achieved 3-year overall survival and 23.5% achieved 5-year overall survival.

Second-Line Cyramza Prolongs OS In Advanced Liver Cancer: Trial Supports Agent For Patients With High Alpha-Fetoprotein Levels
23 January 2019
A recent study shows that treatment with sorafenib (Nexavar) followed by ramucirumab (Cyramza) extends overall survival. Andrew Zhu, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School in Boston, and colleagues observed 292 patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and high levels of alpha-fetoprotein. At the 7.6-month follow-up, median OS was 29% longer in patients who received ramucirumab. The median duration of therapy was 12 weeks. Potential limitations of REACH-2 include the exclusion of patients with severe liver cirrhosis because of their high risk of mortality independent of cancer, said Ghassan Abou-Alfa, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City.

Doctors Suggested Which Beverage May Protect Against Liver Cancer
23 January 2019
As millions of people world-wide drink coffee and wonder whether it is useful or destructive to your health, researchers have compiled a list of benefits. Coffee has been shown to reduce several health risks. Studies show that people who drink coffee are 80% less likely to develop cirrhosis of the liver and reduces the risk of liver cancer. Coffee contains special antioxidants which prevents oxidative stress to the cells, and this slows the aging process. Coffee has also been shown to reduce the risk of type II diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Healthwell's New Fund Offers Medicare Patients Living With Hepatocellular Carcinoma A Financial Lifeline
22 January 2019
The HealthWell Foundation, an independent non-profit that provides financial assistance for inadequately insured Americans, has opened a new fund to help Medicare patients who are living with HCC. HealthWell will provide up to $8,000 in copayment or premium assistance to eligible patients. Suzanna Masartis, Executive Director for Community Liver Alliance, commented “Medicare patients living with HCC are particularly hard hit by the financial burden of disease treatment and, often, forgo treatment all together. The CLA applauds the HealthWell Foundation for the launch of the new HCC fund, which clearly addresses an unmet need for these patients.”

Immunicum AB Announces Publication Of Phase I/II Clinical Trial Results Of Ilixadencel In Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Frontiers In Oncology
21 January 2019
Immunicum AB has published the final data analysis from the exploratory clinical study of ilixadencel in patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in the journal, Frontiers in Oncology. In September 2017, the Phase I/II clinical study of 17 patients with unresectable and/or metastatic HCC investigated the safety and tolerability of ilixadencel. Ilixadencel was administered either as a second-line therapy for patients not responding to previous treatment with sorafenib or as a first-line therapy alone or in combination with sorafenib. The results of the study confirmed the safety of ilixadencel as a single treatment, or in combination with sorafenib.

Australian Patient Treated With DC Bead LUMI™, The First Commercially Available Radiopaque Drug-Eluting Bead
21 January 2019
BTG is a global specialist healthcare company, and the creator of the DC Bead LUM treatment. DC Bead LUM is the first commercially available bead which can be loaded with doxorubicin or irinotecan for the local treatment of tumors in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Dr Anthony Wilkinson, BTG Regional Medical Director commented, “Feedback from both physicians and their patients indicate that DC Bead LUMI™ is an important advance in personalized, loco-regional cancer therapy. As a leader in intra-hepatic therapy for HCC, BTG is excited to be able to launch our latest Drug-Eluting Bead product in the Australian market. We anticipate that the enhanced visualization of DC Bead LUMI™ will lead to improved patient outcomes through more accurate delivery.”

Liver Cancer Patients Can Benefit From Hep C Medications: DAA Therapy Was Not Associated With Increased Overall Or Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence
20 January 2019
Based on a study conducted by researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center (UTSWMED), disproves the idea that Hepatitis C antiviral medications may lead to a higher recurrence of liver cancer. It was shown that 42 percent of liver cancer survivors who were treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) experienced a recurrence of their liver cancer, compared with 59 percent of patients who were not treated with antivirals. Dr. Amit Singal, Associate Professor of Internal Medicine and Medical Director of the Liver Tumor Program, said, “Based on these new data, providers can feel reassured that it is safe to treat hepatitis C in these patients and allow them to receive the known benefits of hepatitis C therapy.”

Are Response Rates Predictive Of Survival Outcome In HCC?
20 January 2019
The phase III REFLECT trial assessed tumor response using modified RECIST criteria (mRECIST) to predict overall survival in HCC patients. These patients were treated with lenvatinib or sorafenib. Results showed median overall survival in the full study was 13.0 months, with 13.6 months with lenvatinib, 12.3 months with sorafenib. The median overall survival among responders in the full trial was 22.4 months, compared with only 11.4 months in nonresponders.

Celsion Announces Publication Of Thermodox Study Results In Radiology
17 January 2019
Results from the Phase 1 TARADOX trial have published in the journal Radiology. The study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ThermoDox, a heat-activated liposomal encapsulation of doxorubicin, along with focused ultrasound for the treatment of liver cancer. ThermoDox was developed by Celsion Corporation, an oncology drug development company. Researchers evaluated patients with inoperable primary or secondary liver tumors who had previously received chemotherapy. Safety was assessed by analyzing patients' MRIs.

Abou-Alfa Highlights HCC Advances, Unmet Needs In Other GI Cancers
16 January 2019
Ghassan K. Abou-Alfa, MD. In August 2018 the FDA approved the use of lenvatinib (Lenvima) as a frontline treatment for patients with unresectable HCC. This was due to the positive results from the phase III REFLECT trial which compared it to sorafenib (Nexavar). Nivolumab (Opdivo) has been approved as a second-line treatment, while its potential as a frontline agent is anticipated in the CheckMate-459 trial. Most recently, the FDA approved cabozantinib (Cabometyx) as a treatment for patients with HCC who previously received sorafenib, based on the findings from the phase III CELESTIAL trial. Additionally, ramucirumab (Cyramza) has also been assessed as a potential second-line treatment for those who progress on sorafenib in the phase III REACH-2 trial.

News Of Note — A Startup’s Phase 2 Drug Slows Liver Cancer In Mice
14 January 2019
eFFECTOR has raised more than $110 million since it was founded in 2013 to study a small molecule designed to block two cancer-promoting enzymes. Their Phase 2 drug, eFT508, has been shown to stop liver cancer in mice. Davide Ruggero, Ph.D., a UCSF researcher and co-founder of eFFECTOR, discovered that in mice with liver tumors driven by the genes MYC and KRAS, the drug slashes levels of the immune-suppressing protein PD-L1 in half. The survival rate of the mice improved following the treatment with eFT508.

African-Americans May Live Longer After Liver Transplant If Their Donors Are The Same Race
10 January 2019
A new study found that African-American adults undergoing liver transplant to treat liver cancer lived significantly longer when the organ donor was also African-American. It has been shown that African-American patients with (HCC), have the poorest long-term survival and have worse outcomes after a liver transplant. This study determined that at five years after transplant, 64.2 percent of race-matched patients were still alive compared with 56.9 percent of unmatched patients, and a median overall survival of 135 months versus 78 months.

Physicians’ Education Resource® To Host Symposium On Optimal Care For Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma
10 January 2019
In interactive HCC symposium, to be chaired by Alan P. Venook, M.D., FASCO, Madden family distinguished professor of medical oncology and translational research at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) will take place at the ASCO 2019 annual conference. The symposium will also include other scientists discussing clinical issues related to the management of patients with HCC. Physicians’ Education Resource has been dedicated to advancing cancer care since 1995.

Drug Sponge Could Minimize Side Effects Of Cancer Treatment: Absorbent Polymer Sops Up Chemotherapy Drugs From Bloodstream After Treatment
9 January 2019
Doctors are hoping to prevent the dangerous side effects of toxic chemotherapy with the help of sponges that are inserted in the bloodstream to absorb excess drugs. The “drug sponge” is an absorbent polymer coating a cylinder that is 3D printed to fit precisely in a vein that carries the blood flowing out of the target organ. it would soak up any drug that was not absorbed by the tumor, preventing it from reaching and potentially poisoning other organs. Steven Hetts, an interventional radiologist at UC San Francisco and his team of scientists are currently testing the “drug sponge” on a pig liver to determine how much drug is absorbed. Hetts says that the technique is superior to another liver cancer treatment now undergoing testing, which requires major endovascular surgery and involves dialysis.

Phase 3 Trial Explores Cabometyx-Tecentriq Combo Therapy In Advanced Liver Cancer
9 January 2019
Cosmic-312 is a phase 3 clinical trial testing a combination of Cabometyx (cabozantinib) with Tecentriq (atezolizumab) versus Nexavar (sorafenib) in previously untreated patients with advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The study will include about 640 patients in almost 200 locations internationally. Tecentriq is a type of therapy called immune checkpoint inhibitor, which works by binding to the PD-L1 protein to block cancer cells from invading the immune system. The aim of this clinical trial is to extend life.

Saffron May Contain Cancer-Beating Properties, UAE Research Finds
7 January 2019
A new research at the UAE University has revealed that a saffron extract called safranal, could have important cancer-beating properties. Ms. Al Mansoori, a master's degree student at UAEU assisted with the research. She began by injecting carcinogens into live rats. Biochemical tests indicated that safranal stopped the cell cycle in the cancer cells from dividing and multiplying. A team of researchers at New York University Abu Dhabi indicated that safranal could kill human liver cancer cells as well.

Considerations For Using Nivolumab In Advanced HCC
7 January 2019
A discussion surrounding clinical study CheckMate 459, which compares sorafenib to nivolumab. Ghassan K. Abou-Alfa, MD states, “We are very heavily involved with checkpoint inhibitors in HCC [Hepatocellular Carcinoma].” Peter Galle, MD, PhD explains that checkpoint inhibitors are basically a break which, in the end, stops the immune system from overreaction. Riad Salem, MD states brings up the topic of real progression versus pseudoprogression.

Dose Escalation In Liver Cancer Study With ADP-A2AFP (AFP) SPEAR T-Cells
7 January 2019
Adaptimmune Therapeutics is recommending a dose escalation in the ongoing ADP-A2AFP (AFP) study in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). During the first cohort, two patients received 100 million transduced SPEAR T-cells and showed no sign of toxicity. Adaptimmune Therapeutics is a leader in T-cell therapy to treat cancer. This is a first-in-human, open-label study including up to 36 patients with escalating target doses of transduced SPEAR T-cells. In the first cohort the dose was 100 million. In the second cohort researchers will use 1 billion, and in the third cohort 1.2-6 billion while evaluating safety.

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